The government has adopted a special resolution on the Carniolan honey bee to protect this native bee from foreign species and preserve the purity of the breed.
The resolution, which still needs to be endorsed by parliament, will supplement measures already in place with a view to preserving the Carniolan bee in Slovenia for future generations of bee-keepers.
The resolution is aimed at preserving breed purity and maintaining the evenly spread and sufficient population of bee families across the country.
The goal is to have at least 150,000 bee families in Slovenia, each of which typically comprises a queen bee, 20,000-60,000 bees and hundreds of drones.
The goal would be pursued through good exploitation of bee pasture, measures to reduce the loss of bee families to disease, sustainable health care and monitoring of the state of bee families and by encouraging people to keep bees.
Minister of Agriculture and Environment Dejan Židan has underscored the importance of the Carniolan bee for Slovenia, noting that this type of bee represents a third of all bees in the EU.
According to him, the Carniolan bee is the most sensitive bee species and as such also serves as an indicator of the state of the environment.
Hailing the resolution, the Slovenian Bee-keepers' Association has noted that few countries, if any, has supported bee-keeping in such a way, with a special resolution. • Source: STA (12/13)
The CGSim (Crystal Growth Simulator) package is specialized software for simulation and optimization of Czochralski (Cz), Encapsulated Czochralski (LEC, VCz, HPLEC), and various modifications of Bridgman crystal growth, including DSS for solar silicon. CGSim is rather unique tool as it successfully implements simultaneous, coupled modeling of the governing phenomena, which is generally hard to achieve in modeling of growth from the melt. Implemented is a wide range of models including quasi-steady and fully unsteady, 2D axi-symmetrical and fully 3D, with all of the suggested models thoroughly verified using extensive experimental data.
Due to it’s advanced modeling capabilities, CGSim allows the user to get precise information on temperature and heat flux distributions in the furnace, crystallization front geometry and evolution in time, control of single crystal growth (to avoid polycrystal), crystal twisting and generation of macrodislocations, melt, and gas convection coupled along interfaces, magnetic fields (DC, AC, traveling) to control melt flow, point defects in Cz Si and thermo-elastic stresses.
Providing an insight into the above physical processes, CGSim helps the user to solve engineering problems quickly and at low cost. It is particularly effective for design and composition of a crystal growth system, optimization of heater power history and balance between heaters to achieve better crystallization front dynamics, as well as optimization of crystal and crucible rotation rates, crucible position and design, species transport.
In casting of multi-crystalline silicon ingots for solar cells, 3D unsteady analysis of melt convection in a squared mould, coupled with the calculation of the crystallization front shape allows us to predict crystallization front evolution during casting of silicon ingots and flow characteristics in the melt, that affect the quality of the multi-crystal, in particular, the dislocation density in crystal grains, growth shape of grains, the content and uniformity of impurities in a multi-silicon crystal.
PolySim is a powerful simulation tool for design and optimization of polycrystalline silicon deposition from chlorosilanes by Siemens process. PolySim is largely oriented to engineers and researchers, and does not require expertise in modeling. Simple and convenient user interface for the problem specification, solution control, and visualization of the results, works in ""engineer-friendly"" terms similar to those used in real reactor operation, which makes getting familiar with the software a matter of several hours.
Unique built-in chemical and thermal models are results of over a decade of experience in modeling Siemens process. All the relevant physical and chemical processes such as turbulent flow, heat and mass transfer, radiative heat exchange, electrical heating of the silicon rods, chlorosilane gas-phase decomposition and surface chemical reactions are accounted for. Importantly, a special model for analysis of the rod surface morphology (“popcorn” formation) was implemented.
PolySim allows the user to find all major process characteristics depending on varying operating conditions and main features of the reactor design, inclulding productivity, energy consumption, silicon conversion, electrical current parameters, gas-phase composition etc. Moreover, PolySim provides means for evaluation and analysis of the conditions non-uniformity and their effect on the growth in the different sections of the rod. Due to the unique approach used to model Siemens process, within a day, the user can analyze multiple trends visualizing the system’s response to the variation of input parameters, which makes PolySim very useful tool from the practical, engineering point of view. PolySim is used now by the leading polysilicon manufacturers and equipment/technology providers in Asia, Europe and USA.
STR provides software and consulting services for modeling and optimization of crystal growth and semiconductor device operation. At the 23rd EU PVSEC, our featured products are PolySim —a software tool for design and optimization of polycrystalline silicon deposition from chlorosilanes by Siemens process, and CGSim— specialized software for simulation and optimization of Czochralski (Cz), Encapsulated Czochralski (LEC, VCz, HPLEC), and Bridgman crystal growth, including DSS for solar silicon.
STR also offers tools for simulation of SiC, III-V and III-nitride crystal growth and epitaxy, as well as tools for analysis of LED/LD structure operation, current spreading and light emission.
Pluto PV Cells and Modules
Suntech will launch its cutting edge, high efficiency Pluto technology at the 23rd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference to be held on September 1–4, 2008 in Valencia, Spain. The breakthrough technology, in the first phase of commercialization, is already achieving over 18% conversion efficiency on mono-crystalline photovoltaic (PV) cells and close to 17% conversion efficiency on multi-crystalline PV cells in mass production, well above conventional screen-printed crystalline PV cells. Suntech anticipates ongoing enhancement of the Pluto technology and targets to achieve 20% conversion efficiency on mono-crystalline PV cells and 18% on multi-crystalline PV cells within the next 2 years.
Pluto technology delivers higher efficiency and power output without increasing the cost of production. The powerful Pluto panels improve space utilization and minimize installation and other balance of system costs. Unique texturing technology, with lower reflectivity, ensures more sunlight can be absorbed throughout the day even without direct solar radiation. Suntech’s patent pending Pluto technology can be applied to a variety of grades of silicon to suit multiple applications and product types. Suntech plans to start shipping Pluto products in early 2009 with Suntech’s standard 25 year power output warranty.
“The successful production of Pluto solar cells and panels is the result of years of world-class research and development and is a milestone achievement for Suntech. This breakthrough technology is integral to Suntech’s strategy to drive towards grid parity and widespread global adoption of solar energy solutions,” remarked Dr. Zhengrong Shi, Suntech’s Chairman and CEO. “For customers, Pluto means greater efficiency and power output, equating to better utilization of space and lower installation costs.”
Suntech has over 240 solar research and development professionals committed to leading solar technology innovation.
Suntech Power Holdings Co., Ltd. is a world leading solar energy company as measured by both production output and capacity of solar cells and modules. Suntech is passionate about improving the environment we live in and dedicated to developing advanced solar solutions that enable sustainable development. Suntech designs, develops, manufactures, and markets a variety of high quality, cost effective and environmentally friendly solar products for electric power applications in the residential, commercial, industrial, and public utility sectors. Suntech offers one of the broadest ranges of BIPV products under the MSK Solar Design LineTM. Suntech has sales offices worldwide and is a market share leader in key global solar markets.
Generation-F® 3200 Modular High Purity Flourine production for large scale PECVD chamber cleaning
There is currently a high level of attention on the usage of NF3 by the electronics industry because of the very high Global Warming Potential (GWP) of this gas. Linde has been leading the replacement of NF3 with high purity fluorine since 2001, and its innovative technology makes thin film Si PV cell production more efficient and more environmentally friendly at the same time.
NF3 is typically used as a fluorine source for PECVD tool chamber cleaning because it is easy to package and transport. However NF3 has a very high GWP (17,200 x CO2), and it also requires a large amount of energy to release and activate its fluorine. The rapid increase in the use of NF3 due to growth of TFT-LCD display production, highlights the need for a more environmentally friendly cleaning agent for solar, where “energy payback” and reduction of environmental impact are key industry drivers.
Pure fluorine gas not only has zero GWP, but requires less energy to activate, reducing cleaning time and increasing CVD throughput, while reducing cleaning costs by up to 40%. Linde’s unique, patented, technology has been qualified on the major CVD OEM’s equipment and is proven in the demanding service of 300mm wafer and TFT-LCD display manufacture. Linde is pleased to announce the new Generation-F® 3200 module, which produces 40 tpa of electronic grade fluorine, offering even more cost effective cleaning for large scale solar fabs.
Linde has a large installed base of F2 generators with customers, including including Toshiba Matsushita Display, Samsung, and LG. Linde is working with key global solar customers to upgrade their processes to use F2. Modular Generation-F® systems are available immediately to supply any demand from R&D pilot lines up to a Giga-watt solar fab.
The Linde Group is a world leader in industrial gases and engineering with around 50,000 employees working in around 100 countries worldwide. In the clean energy field, Linde is at the forefront of the emerging hydrogen economy, active in CO2 capture & storage, and leading the development of innovative waste-to-energy schemes. In solar energy we supply materials to more than half of the major manufacturers worldwide. Linde’s mission is to develop and apply advanced gas and chemical technologies that help solar cell manufacturers move toward grid parity, while encouraging the adoption of environmentally sustainable manufacturing.